2011年11月17日 星期四

19 主要腸胃荷爾蒙及神經調節物質

The Major Gastrointestinal Regulatory Substances
主要腸胃荷爾蒙及神經調節物質

SUBSTANCE
物質
STIMULUS FOR PRODUCTION
刺激其產生的因素
TARGET TISSUE
標的組織
EFFECT ON SECRETIONS
分泌物的效果
EFFECT ON MOTILITY
對腸胃道蠕動之效果
A. Neuroregulators
 神經傳遞調節物質
Acetylcholine
乙酸酸膽鹼
Sight, smell, chewing food, stomach distention
視覺、嗅覺、咀嚼食物、胃擴張
Gastric glands, other secretory glands, gastric and intestinal muscle
胃腺體、分泌腺體、胃及小腸肌肉
Increased gastric acid
增加胃酸
Generally increased; decreas sphincter tone
通常增加胃腸蠕動、降低括約肌張力
Norepinephrine
正腎上腺素
Stress, other various stimuli
壓力、其它各種刺激
Secretory glands, gastric and intestinal muscle
分泌腺體、胃及小腸肌肉
Generally inhibitory
通常為抑制
Generally decreased; increase sphincter tone
通常降低胃腸蠕動,增加括約肌張力
B. Hormonal Regulators
 荷爾蒙調節物質
Gastrin
促胃液素
Stomach distention with food
胃因有食物而擴張時
Gastric glands
胃腺體
Increased secretion of gastric juice, which is rich in HCI
增加富含塩酸的胃液分泌
1. Increased motility of stomac decreased time required for gastric emptying
增加胃之蠕動,降低胃排空時間
2. Relaxation of ileocecal sphincter
鬆弛迴盲括約肌
3. Excitation of colon 刺激興奮大腸
4. Constriction of gastroesophageal sphincter
胃食道括約肌收縮
Cholecystokinin
胆囊收縮素
Fat in duodenum
十二指腸中的脂肪
Gallbladder
胆囊
Release of bile into duodenum
釋放胆汁進入十二指腸



Pancreas
Increased production of enzyme rich pancereatic secretions
增加分泌富含酶的胰分泌液



Stomach
Inhibits gastric secretion somewhat 抑制胃之分泌

Secretin
胰泌素
pH of chyme in duodenum below 4-5
十二指腸中的食糜之 pH 低於4-5
Stomach
Inhibits gastric secretion somewhat
抑制胃之分泌
Inhibits stomach contractions
抑制胃收縮


Pancreas
Increased production of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice
增加分泌富含碳酸的胰液

C. Local Regulator
 局部調節物質
Histamine
組織胺
Unclear, substances in food
不明食物中的成份
Gastric glands
胃腺體
Increased gastric acid production
增加胃酸分泌

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